Anglais

Academic Free License v. 3.0

LicenceText: 

This Academic Free License (the "License") applies to any original work of authorship (the "Original Work") whose owner (the "Licensor") has placed the following licensing notice adjacent to the copyright notice for the Original Work:

Licensed under the Academic Free License version 3.0

  1. Grant of Copyright License. Licensor grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, sublicensable license, for the duration of the copyright, to do the following:
    1. to reproduce the Original Work in copies, either alone or as part of a collective work;
    2. to translate, adapt, alter, transform, modify, or arrange the Original Work, thereby creating derivative works ("Derivative Works") based upon the Original Work;
    3. to distribute or communicate copies of the Original Work and Derivative Works to the public, under any license of your choice that does not contradict the terms and conditions, including Licensor's reserved rights and remedies, in this Academic Free License;
    4. to perform the Original Work publicly; and
    5. to display the Original Work publicly.
  2. Grant of Patent License. Licensor grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, sublicensable license, under patent claims owned or controlled by the Licensor that are embodied in the Original Work as furnished by the Licensor, for the duration of the patents, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, have made, and import the Original Work and Derivative Works.
  3. Grant of Source Code License. The term "Source Code" means the preferred form of the Original Work for making modifications to it and all available documentation describing how to modify the Original Work. Licensor agrees to provide a machine-readable copy of the Source Code of the Original Work along with each copy of the Original Work that Licensor distributes. Licensor reserves the right to satisfy this obligation by placing a machine-readable copy of the Source Code in an information repository reasonably calculated to permit inexpensive and convenient access by You for as long as Licensor continues to distribute the Original Work.
  4. Exclusions From License Grant. Neither the names of Licensor, nor the names of any contributors to the Original Work, nor any of their trademarks or service marks, may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this Original Work without express prior permission of the Licensor. Except as expressly stated herein, nothing in this License grants any license to Licensor's trademarks, copyrights, patents, trade secrets or any other intellectual property. No patent license is granted to make, use, sell, offer for sale, have made, or import embodiments of any patent claims other than the licensed claims defined in Section 2. No license is granted to the trademarks of Licensor even if such marks are included in the Original Work. Nothing in this License shall be interpreted to prohibit Licensor from licensing under terms different from this License any Original Work that Licensor otherwise would have a right to license.
  5. External Deployment. The term "External Deployment" means the use, distribution, or communication of the Original Work or Derivative Works in any way such that the Original Work or Derivative Works may be used by anyone other than You, whether those works are distributed or communicated to those persons or made available as an application intended for use over a network. As an express condition for the grants of license hereunder, You must treat any External Deployment by You of the Original Work or a Derivative Work as a distribution under section 1(c).
  6. Attribution Rights. You must retain, in the Source Code of any Derivative Works that You create, all copyright, patent, or trademark notices from the Source Code of the Original Work, as well as any notices of licensing and any descriptive text identified therein as an "Attribution Notice." You must cause the Source Code for any Derivative Works that You create to carry a prominent Attribution Notice reasonably calculated to inform recipients that You have modified the Original Work.
  7. Warranty of Provenance and Disclaimer of Warranty. Licensor warrants that the copyright in and to the Original Work and the patent rights granted herein by Licensor are owned by the Licensor or are sublicensed to You under the terms of this License with the permission of the contributor(s) of those copyrights and patent rights. Except as expressly stated in the immediately preceding sentence, the Original Work is provided under this License on an "AS IS" BASIS and WITHOUT WARRANTY, either express or implied, including, without limitation, the warranties of non-infringement, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY OF THE ORIGINAL WORK IS WITH YOU. This DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY constitutes an essential part of this License. No license to the Original Work is granted by this License except under this disclaimer.
  8. Limitation of Liability. Under no circumstances and under no legal theory, whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, shall the Licensor be liable to anyone for any indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any character arising as a result of this License or the use of the Original Work including, without limitation, damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses. This limitation of liability shall not apply to the extent applicable law prohibits such limitation.
  9. Acceptance and Termination. If, at any time, You expressly assented to this License, that assent indicates your clear and irrevocable acceptance of this License and all of its terms and conditions. If You distribute or communicate copies of the Original Work or a Derivative Work, You must make a reasonable effort under the circumstances to obtain the express assent of recipients to the terms of this License. This License conditions your rights to undertake the activities listed in Section 1, including your right to create Derivative Works based upon the Original Work, and doing so without honoring these terms and conditions is prohibited by copyright law and international treaty. Nothing in this License is intended to affect copyright exceptions and limitations (including "fair use" or "fair dealing"). This License shall terminate immediately and You may no longer exercise any of the rights granted to You by this License upon your failure to honor the conditions in Section 1(c).
  10. Termination for Patent Action. This License shall terminate automatically and You may no longer exercise any of the rights granted to You by this License as of the date You commence an action, including a cross-claim or counterclaim, against Licensor or any licensee alleging that the Original Work infringes a patent. This termination provision shall not apply for an action alleging patent infringement by combinations of the Original Work with other software or hardware.
  11. Jurisdiction, Venue and Governing Law. Any action or suit relating to this License may be brought only in the courts of a jurisdiction wherein the Licensor resides or in which Licensor conducts its primary business, and under the laws of that jurisdiction excluding its conflict-of-law provisions. The application of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods is expressly excluded. Any use of the Original Work outside the scope of this License or after its termination shall be subject to the requirements and penalties of copyright or patent law in the appropriate jurisdiction. This section shall survive the termination of this License.
  12. Attorneys' Fees. In any action to enforce the terms of this License or seeking damages relating thereto, the prevailing party shall be entitled to recover its costs and expenses, including, without limitation, reasonable attorneys' fees and costs incurred in connection with such action, including any appeal of such action. This section shall survive the termination of this License.
  13. Miscellaneous. If any provision of this License is held to be unenforceable, such provision shall be reformed only to the extent necessary to make it enforceable.
  14. Definition of "You" in This License. "You" throughout this License, whether in upper or lower case, means an individual or a legal entity exercising rights under, and complying with all of the terms of, this License. For legal entities, "You" includes any entity that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with you. For purposes of this definition, "control" means (i) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (ii) ownership of fifty percent (50%) or more of the outstanding shares, or (iii) beneficial ownership of such entity.
  15. Right to Use. You may use the Original Work in all ways not otherwise restricted or conditioned by this License or by law, and Licensor promises not to interfere with or be responsible for such uses by You.
  16. Modification of This License. This License is Copyright © 2005 Lawrence Rosen. Permission is granted to copy, distribute, or communicate this License without modification. Nothing in this License permits You to modify this License as applied to the Original Work or to Derivative Works. However, You may modify the text of this License and copy, distribute or communicate your modified version (the "Modified License") and apply it to other original works of authorship subject to the following conditions: (i) You may not indicate in any way that your Modified License is the "Academic Free License" or "AFL" and you may not use those names in the name of your Modified License; (ii) You must replace the notice specified in the first paragraph above with the notice "Licensed under " or with a notice of your own that is not confusingly similar to the notice in this License; and (iii) You may not claim that your original works are open source software unless your Modified License has been approved by Open Source Initiative (OSI) and You comply with its license review and certification process.

Open Database License 1.0 (Analyse)

Contexte: 

La particularité des licences attachée à des bases de données réside dans l'(in)adaptation à leurs objets : les données – ou, plus précisément, un ensemble de données organisé sous forme de bases de données.

En effet, contrairement aux créations classiques (logiciels, articles, etc.), les données ne génèrent pas, en tant que telles, un quelconque droit de Propriété intellectuelle au profit de celui qui les crée, les détient ou les exploite – sauf à ce qu'elles en réunissent les critères (elles sont alors créations originales soumises au droit d'auteur– cette qualification concernant l'organisation globale de la base, mais non les extractions qui peuvent en être faites). Or, en l'absence de droit exclusif qui permettrait de conditionner chaque usage au respect du cadre contractuel défini, celui qui détient des données se trouve démuni face à toute personne qui aurait pris connaissance des données sans contracter.

C'est à cette problématique que tente de répondre l'ODbL, la licence faisant reposer son efficience sur une assiette plus large que le seul droit d'auteur, en incluant également le droit des contrats et le droit sui generis des bases de données (article 2.0 Champ d’application de la présente Licence). Ainsi, la condition essentielle de la licence, son copyleft, impose que toute base de données – modifiée ou non – soit distribuée sous la même licence. C'est cette prise de conscience qui a conduit le projet OpenStreetMap a mettre en place un processus de changement de licence au profit de l'ODbL.

La licence ne couvre néanmoins pas le contenu même de la base de données pris isolément (une nouvelle licence pouvant alors y être associée (article 2.4 Rapport avec le Contenu de la Base de données.), ni même les brevets ou marques qui pourraient y figurer (article 2.3 Droits non compris dans la licence).

Droits et obligations
Droits: 

Tous les droits d'auteur et droits sui generis détenus sur la base de données sont cédés (non exclusivement) à l'utilisateur de la base. Il en est de même de tout autre droit inclus dans la base et dont la cession est nécessaire au respect de la licence (article 10.4 ).

La licence n'autorise pas les sous-licences (il n'y a pas de chaîne contractuelle : chaque titulaire cèdant ses seuls droits à chaque utilisateur) et est bien sûr non exclusive (article 3.3).

Obligations: 

Tout manquement aux obligations de la licence entraîne la résiliation de la licence (article 9.0 Cessation de Vos droits au titre de la présente Licence) – même si un processus de rétablissement des droits est prévu pour réintroduire les utilisateurs « repentants » dans leurs droits (les personnes dont les droits font l'objet d'une cessation permanente ne pouvant bénéficier d'une nouvelle licence).

a. Copyleft (partage à identique des conditions initiales)
La base de données d'origine et les bases de données dérivées (y compris les créations issues assimilables à des bases de données dérivées) doivent être licenciées sous la même licence ou sous l'une des licences compatibles (article 4.4 Partage à l’identique des conditions initiales).

b. Formalisme
La licence impose un certain formalisme relatif à l'utilisation des bases (ou des créations générées) et à leur transfert.
Ainsi, en cas d'utilisation publique d'une base de données (originale, dérivée ou collaborative) ou d'une Création issue d'une telle base :

  • il faut mentionner la licence et les bases de données sous ODbL utilisées ;
  • en présence d'une BdD dérivée, il faut rendre disponible une copie numérique de la totalité de celle-ci ou un fichier contenant toutes les modifications apportées.
Lors de la transmission de la BdD, il faut veiller à conserver les mentions légales intactes et inclure une copie de l'ODbL ou de son URI (dans la BdD, originale ou dérivée, ou toute autre documentation pertinente). Le coût de cette transmission doit être raisonnable, voire gratuit en cas de distribution en ligne.

c. Divers
La licence contient par ailleurs une interdiction de l'usage de mesures techniques de protection (MTP), sauf à rendre parallèlement disponible la telle base sans MTP, ainsi qu'une exclusion de garantie et une limitation de responsabilité totale (la portée de ces dernières étant limitée en France).

Étendue: 

Au-delà de la base de données d'origine, la licence doit être étendue à toute base de données dite dérivée (base de données reposant sur la base originaire) exploitée publiquement.

La licence permet néanmoins toute utilisation conjointe de plusieurs bases de données indépendantes. Il s'agit alors de bases de données collaboratives et seules la base de données d'origine ou ses dérivées doivent être diffusées sous ODbL.

Élément déclencheur: 

La licence n'impose aucune contrainte quant au transfert, à l'utilisation privée de la BdD ou à la conception de créations grâce à ladite BdD.
La licence prend ses pleins effets dès lors qu'il y a :

  • transfert public de la BdD (la communication d'une copie, de la base à un tiers) ;
  • l'utilisation publique (mise au contact de tiers) d'une BdD dérivée ou d'une création issue de cette base (originale, dérivée ou partie d'une BdD collaborative).

Compatibilité
Mécanisme de compatibilité: 

Un mécanisme de compatibilité expresse est prévu au sein de la licence, laissant à la charge du concédant le soin de préciser quelles sont les licences compatibles ou de désigner un mandataire qui le fera pour son compte (article 4.4 e).

Plus loin
Exemples sous cette licence: 
Portail de la Mairie de Paris

B.4 JDOM License v1.11

Fiche d'analyse: 
B.4 JDOM License v1.11
LicenceText: 

LICENSE.txt,v 1.11 2004/02/06 09:32:57 jhunter Exp

Copyright (C) 2000-2004 Jason Hunter & Brett McLaughlin.
All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:

1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer.

2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions, and the disclaimer that follows
these conditions in the documentation and/or other materials
provided with the distribution.

3. The name "JDOM" must not be used to endorse or promote products
derived from this software without prior written permission. For
written permission, please contact .

4. Products derived from this software may not be called "JDOM", nor
may "JDOM" appear in their name, without prior written permission
from the JDOM Project Management .

In addition, we request (but do not require) that you include in the
end-user documentation provided with the redistribution and/or in the
software itself an acknowledgement equivalent to the following:
"This product includes software developed by the
JDOM Project (http://www.jdom.org/<)."
Alternatively, the acknowledgment may be graphical using the logos
available at http://www.jdom.org/images/logos.<

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED \Q\QAS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE JDOM AUTHORS OR THE PROJECT
CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF
USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT
OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGE.

This software consists of voluntary contributions made by many
individuals on behalf of the JDOM Project and was originally
created by Jason Hunter and
Brett McLaughlin . For more information
on the JDOM Project, please see .

B.4 JDOM License v1.11

Contexte: 

La licence:

Plus loin

GNU Affero General Public License v3 (Analyse)

Contexte: 

La GNU AGPL 3.01 est elle construite sur le canevas de la GNU GPL v3, seul son article 13 étant différent.

Droits et obligations
Obligations: 

En matière d'obligation, il faut distinguer d'une part ceux qui distribuent le Logiciel ou en offrent un accès en ligne et, d'autre part, ceux qui contribuent :

  • les distributeurs et utilisateurs offrant un accès en ligne, sont tenus : à un certain affichage des mentions légales, à la distribution de la licence et la distribution du code source correspondant ;
  • et, au surplus, les contributeurs sont « classiquement » tenus : par le caractère copyleft de la licence, c'est-à-dire à ce que toute redistribution du Logiciel, d'une version modifiée ou d'une solution basée sur ce logiciel se fasse sous la même licence1 ; à une licence de brevet qui s'étend automatiquement à tout brevet détenu par un contributeur sur sa contribution ; à une interdiction d'opposer d'éventuels droits qui seraient détenus sur une mesure technique de protection.

Étendue: 

L'étendue de la GNU AGPL est particulièrement large puisqu'elle reprend celle de la GNU GPL sans l'adapter aux solutions logicielles donnant accès à des services : ainsi sont soumises à la licence (et doivent donc être distribuées selon les termes de cette dernière) les versions modifiées du Logiciel, mais aussi les versions basées sur le Logiciel1 – la limite étant celle l’« agrégat », compris comme « une compilation du code couvert (par la licence) avec d'autres œuvres séparées et indépendantes, qui ne sont pas par leur nature des extensions du code couvert, et qui ne sont pas combinées comme un programme plus large, sur ou dans un média de stockage ou de distribution, est appelée un agrégat ».

Élément déclencheur: 

En matière d'éléments déclencheurs, deux hypothèses se cumulent : la distribution du Logiciel (comprise comme la mise à disposition du Logiciel1) ou l'interaction via le réseau d'une version modifiée du Logiciel (il faut une interaction ET une modification).

Compatibilité
Mécanisme de compatibilité: 

La licence est expressément compatible avec la GNU GPL v3.

GNU Affero General Public License v3

LicenceText: 

==GNU AFFERO GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE ==

Version 3, 19 November 2007

Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
=== Preamble ===

The GNU Affero General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works, specifically designed to ensure cooperation with the community in the case of network server software.

The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, our General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for all its users.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things.

Developers that use our General Public Licenses protect your rights with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.

A secondary benefit of defending all users' freedom is that improvements made in alternate versions of the program, if they receive widespread use, become available for other developers to incorporate. Many developers of free software are heartened and encouraged by the resulting cooperation. However, in the case of software used on network servers, this result may fail to come about. The GNU General Public License permits making a modified version and letting the public access it on a server without ever releasing its source code to the public.

The GNU Affero General Public License is designed specifically to ensure that, in such cases, the modified source code becomes available to the community. It requires the operator of a network server to provide the source code of the modified version running there to the users of that server. Therefore, public use of a modified version, on a publicly accessible server, gives the public access to the source code of the modified version.

An older license, called the Affero General Public License and published by Affero, was designed to accomplish similar goals. This is a different license, not a version of the Affero GPL, but Affero has released a new version of the Affero GPL which permits relicensing under this license.

The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.

=== TERMS AND CONDITIONS ===

==== 0. Definitions. ====

"This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License.

"Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks.

"The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License. Each licensee is addressed as "you". "Licensees" and "recipients" may be individuals or organizations.

To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact copy. The resulting work is called a "modified version" of the earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work.

A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work based on the Program.

To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without modification), making available to the public, and in some countries other activities as well.

To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.

An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices" to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.

==== 1. Source Code. ====

The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. "Object code" means any non-source form of a work.

A "Standard Interface" means an interface that either is an official standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that is widely used among developers working in that language.

The "System Libraries" of an executable work include anything, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in source code form. A "Major Component", in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.

The "Corresponding Source" for a work in object code form means all the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those activities. However, it does not include the work's System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which are used unmodified in performing those activities but which are not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source includes interface definition files associated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those subprograms and other parts of the work.

The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source.

The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work.

==== 2. Basic Permissions. ====

All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law.

You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you.

Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary.
==== 3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law. ====

No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures.

When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures.
==== 4. Conveying Verbatim Copies. ====

You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.

You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.
==== 5. Conveying Modified Source Versions. ====

You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

a) The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified it, and giving a relevant date.
b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is released under this License and any conditions added under section 7. This requirement modifies the requirement in section 4 to "keep intact all notices".
c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives no permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not invalidate such permission if you have separately received it.
d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your work need not make them do so.

A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate.
==== 6. Conveying Non-Source Forms. ====

You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways:

a) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange.
b) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge.
c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord with subsection 6b.
d) Convey the object code by offering access from a designated place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access to the Corresponding Source in the same way through the same place at no further charge. You need not require recipients to copy the Corresponding Source along with the object code. If the place to copy the object code is a network server, the Corresponding Source may be on a different server (operated by you or a third party) that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided you maintain clear directions next to the object code saying where to find the Corresponding Source. Regardless of what server hosts the Corresponding Source, you remain obligated to ensure that it is available for as long as needed to satisfy these requirements.
e) Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding Source of the work are being offered to the general public at no charge under subsection 6d.

A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work.

A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product", which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, "normally used" refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product.

"Installation Information" for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modification has been made.

If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM).

The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network.

Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying.
==== 7. Additional Terms. ====

"Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions.

When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:

a) Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or
b) Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or
c) Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or
d) Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or authors of the material; or
e) Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or
f) Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors.

All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further restrictions" within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying.

If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms.

Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way.
==== 8. Termination. ====

You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11).

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10.

==== 9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies. ====

You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.
==== 10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients. ====

Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.

An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.
==== 11. Patents. ====

A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".

A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, "control" includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.

Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.

In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To "grant" such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.

If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. "Knowingly relying" means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.

If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.
==== 12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom. ====

If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.
==== 13. Remote Network Interaction; Use with the GNU General Public License. ====

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, if you modify the Program, your modified version must prominently offer all users interacting with it remotely through a computer network (if your version supports such interaction) an opportunity to receive the Corresponding Source of your version by providing access to the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge, through some standard or customary means of facilitating copying of software. This Corresponding Source shall include the Corresponding Source for any work covered by version 3 of the GNU General Public License that is incorporated pursuant to the following paragraph.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the work with which it is combined will remain governed by version 3 of the GNU General Public License.
==== 14. Revised Versions of this License. ====

The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU Affero General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU Affero General Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU Affero General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU Affero General Public License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.
==== 15. Disclaimer of Warranty. ====

THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
==== 16. Limitation of Liability. ====

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
==== 17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16. ====

If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.

=== END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS ===

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.


Copyright (C)

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as
published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the
License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU Affero General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
along with this program. If not, see .

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If your software can interact with users remotely through a computer network, you should also make sure that it provides a way for users to get its source. For example, if your program is a web application, its interface could display a "Source" link that leads users to an archive of the code. There are many ways you could offer source, and different solutions will be better for different programs; see section 13 for the specific requirements.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU AGPL, see .

Apache License v2

LicenceText: 

Version 2.0, January 2004

http://www.apache.org/licenses/<

TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE, REPRODUCTION, AND DISTRIBUTION
1. Definitions.

"License" shall mean the terms and conditions for use, reproduction, and distribution as defined by Sections 1 through 9 of this document.

"Licensor" shall mean the copyright owner or entity authorized by the copyright owner that is granting the License.

"Legal Entity" shall mean the union of the acting entity and all other entities that control, are controlled by, or are under common control with that entity. For the purposes of this definition, "control" means (i) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (ii) ownership of fifty percent (50%) or more of the outstanding shares, or (iii) beneficial ownership of such entity.

"You" (or "Your") shall mean an individual or Legal Entity exercising permissions granted by this License.

"Source" form shall mean the preferred form for making modifications, including but not limited to software source code, documentation source, and configuration files.

"Object" form shall mean any form resulting from mechanical transformation or translation of a Source form, including but not limited to compiled object code, generated documentation, and conversions to other media types.

"Work" shall mean the work of authorship, whether in Source or Object form, made available under the License, as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below).

"Derivative Works" shall mean any work, whether in Source or Object form, that is based on (or derived from) the Work and for which the editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications represent, as a whole, an original work of authorship. For the purposes of this License, Derivative Works shall not include works that remain separable from, or merely link (or bind by name) to the interfaces of, the Work and Derivative Works thereof.

"Contribution" shall mean any work of authorship, including the original version of the Work and any modifications or additions to that Work or Derivative Works thereof, that is intentionally submitted to Licensor for inclusion in the Work by the copyright owner or by an individual or Legal Entity authorized to submit on behalf of the copyright owner. For the purposes of this definition, "submitted" means any form of electronic, verbal, or written communication sent to the Licensor or its representatives, including but not limited to communication on electronic mailing lists, source code control systems, and issue tracking systems that are managed by, or on behalf of, the Licensor for the purpose of discussing and improving the Work, but excluding communication that is conspicuously marked or otherwise designated in writing by the copyright owner as "Not a Contribution."

"Contributor" shall mean Licensor and any individual or Legal Entity on behalf of whom a Contribution has been received by Licensor and subsequently incorporated within the Work.
2. Grant of Copyright License.

Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free, irrevocable copyright license to reproduce, prepare Derivative Works of, publicly display, publicly perform, sublicense, and distribute the Work and such Derivative Works in Source or Object form.
3. Grant of Patent License.

Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free, irrevocable (except as stated in this section) patent license to make, have made, use, offer to sell, sell, import, and otherwise transfer the Work, where such license applies only to those patent claims licensable by such Contributor that are necessarily infringed by their Contribution(s) alone or by combination of their Contribution(s) with the Work to which such Contribution(s) was submitted. If You institute patent litigation against any entity (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that the Work or a Contribution incorporated within the Work constitutes direct or contributory patent infringement, then any patent licenses granted to You under this License for that Work shall terminate as of the date such litigation is filed.
4. Redistribution.

You may reproduce and distribute copies of the Work or Derivative Works thereof in any medium, with or without modifications, and in Source or Object form, provided that You meet the following conditions:

You must give any other recipients of the Work or Derivative Works a copy of this License; and
You must cause any modified files to carry prominent notices stating that You changed the files; and
You must retain, in the Source form of any Derivative Works that You distribute, all copyright, patent, trademark, and attribution notices from the Source form of the Work, excluding those notices that do not pertain to any part of the Derivative Works; and
If the Work includes a "NOTICE" text file as part of its distribution, then any Derivative Works that You distribute must include a readable copy of the attribution notices contained within such NOTICE file, excluding those notices that do not pertain to any part of the Derivative Works, in at least one of the following places: within a NOTICE text file distributed as part of the Derivative Works; within the Source form or documentation, if provided along with the Derivative Works; or, within a display generated by the Derivative Works, if and wherever such third-party notices normally appear. The contents of the NOTICE file are for informational purposes only and do not modify the License. You may add Your own attribution notices within Derivative Works that You distribute, alongside or as an addendum to the NOTICE text from the Work, provided that such additional attribution notices cannot be construed as modifying the License. You may add Your own copyright statement to Your modifications and may provide additional or different license terms and conditions for use, reproduction, or distribution of Your modifications, or for any such Derivative Works as a whole, provided Your use, reproduction, and distribution of the Work otherwise complies with the conditions stated in this License.

5. Submission of Contributions.

Unless You explicitly state otherwise, any Contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the Work by You to the Licensor shall be under the terms and conditions of this License, without any additional terms or conditions. Notwithstanding the above, nothing herein shall supersede or modify the terms of any separate license agreement you may have executed with Licensor regarding such Contributions.
6. Trademarks.

This License does not grant permission to use the trade names, trademarks, service marks, or product names of the Licensor, except as required for reasonable and customary use in describing the origin of the Work and reproducing the content of the NOTICE file.
7. Disclaimer of Warranty.

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, Licensor provides the Work (and each Contributor provides its Contributions) on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied, including, without limitation, any warranties or conditions of TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. You are solely responsible for determining the appropriateness of using or redistributing the Work and assume any risks associated with Your exercise of permissions under this License.
8. Limitation of Liability.

In no event and under no legal theory, whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, unless required by applicable law (such as deliberate and grossly negligent acts) or agreed to in writing, shall any Contributor be liable to You for damages, including any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any character arising as a result of this License or out of the use or inability to use the Work (including but not limited to damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses), even if such Contributor has been advised of the possibility of such damages.
9. Accepting Warranty or Additional Liability.

While redistributing the Work or Derivative Works thereof, You may choose to offer, and charge a fee for, acceptance of support, warranty, indemnity, or other liability obligations and/or rights consistent with this License. However, in accepting such obligations, You may act only on Your own behalf and on Your sole responsibility, not on behalf of any other Contributor, and only if You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold each Contributor harmless for any liability incurred by, or claims asserted against, such Contributor by reason of your accepting any such warranty or additional liability.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
APPENDIX: How to apply the Apache License to your work

To apply the Apache License to your work, attach the following boilerplate notice, with the fields enclosed by brackets "[]" replaced with your own identifying information. (Don't include the brackets!) The text should be enclosed in the appropriate comment syntax for the file format. We also recommend that a file or class name and description of purpose be included on the same "printed page" as the copyright notice for easier identification within third-party archives.

Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0<

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.

Apache License Version 2.0 (Analyse)

Contexte: 

Seule l'utilisation de la version 2.0, publiée le 1er mars 2004, de l'Apache Public License est aujourd'hui préconisée (notamment, par défaut, pour tous les projets de la fondation Apache)1<.

C'est une licence permissive par laquelle les contributeurs partagent leur monopole en matière de droit d'auteur et éventuellement de brevets pourtant sur ces contributions (cette licence tombe en cas d'action à l'encontre des contributeurs).

  • 1.< Il est encore néanmoins possible de retrouver la version 1.0 dans certains projets, comme OpenSSL License.
Droits et obligations
Droits: 

La licence autorise expressément les sous-licences.

Obligations: 

En terme d'obligations, on retrouve les mentions traditionnelles relatives à la paternité et à la licence (avec notamment la nécessité de distinguer les différentes contributions et le respect d'un formalisme quant aux mentions légales attachées aux œuvres dérivées). Toute contribution reversée au concédant pour inclusion dans son logiciel est, sauf mention contraire, réputée être soumise à la même licence. Enfin, une sanction est prévue à l'encontre de tout licencié qui agirait sur la base d'une violation de brevet dans l'usage d'un logiciel sous licence Apache ou ses contributions (toutes les licences de brevets qu'il tire de la licence Apache se terminent au jour de l'assignation).

Étendue: 

L'étendue de la licence est, pour l'essentiel, limitée à la portion du code sous licence Apache, mais certaines obligations (notamment celle concernant les mentions légales du logiciel final) s'étendent aussi aux logiciels dérivés (basés sur ou incluant des composants sous licences Apache).

Élément déclencheur: 

L'élément déclencheur est la distribution de copies du logiciel (l'accès au code offert à un tiers).

Plus loin
Aller plus loin: 

Les différents draft qui circulèrent sur la troisième version de la GNU GPL semblent justement permettre à cette dernière de disposer de suffisamment de flexibilité pour englober les contributions soumises initialement à la licence Apache (Section 7e, et 7b dans le 2^e^ draft) en ouvrant à une compatibilité auprès des licences incluant une clause de résiliation de brevet.

Il y a une mise en place d’un Contributor License Agreements (TXT ou PDF), qui permet à la Fondation Apache de se substituer aux contributeurs pour la défense de leurs droits de Propriété Intellectuelle. Un contrat identique est destiné aux entreprises : le CCLA.

Un autre contrat est prévu pour ceux désirant incorporer leurs contributions à un projet Apache : Software Grant. Des conditions de viabilité de projet encadrent bien sûr cette possibilité.

La licence est l’une des “ Big DFSG-compatible Licenses “

Exemples sous cette licence: 
HTTP Serveur
Exemples sous cette licence: 
Ant
Exemples sous cette licence: 
APR
Exemples sous cette licence: 
Beehive
Exemples sous cette licence: 
Cocoon
Exemples sous cette licence: 
DB
Exemples sous cette licence: 
Directory
Exemples sous cette licence: 
Excalibur
Exemples sous cette licence: 
Forrest
Exemples sous cette licence: 
Geronimo
Exemples sous cette licence: 
Gump
Exemples sous cette licence: 
Harmony
Exemples sous cette licence: 
HiveMind
Exemples sous cette licence: 
iBATIS

Academic Free License Version 3.0 (Analyse)

Contexte: 

Assez similaire à la licence Apache, l'Academic Free License est la petite soeur permissive de l'OSL (toutes les clauses lui sont identiques, à l'exception de celles instaurant le copyleft).

L'Academic Free License a vocation à être utilisée sur toutes œuvres originales (ce qui inclut donc les logiciels, mais aussi les documentations, images, etc. — avec comme intention de pouvoir s'appliquer à tout ce qui accompagne le logiciel) : c'est pourquoi Lawrence E. Rosen la qualifie de licence de « contenu libre ». L'Academic Free License (OSL) est une licence issue des travaux de Lawrence Rosen. La version 1.1 date de 2002 et fut certifiée open source par l'Open Source Initiative (OSI), mais fut déclarée incompatible avec la DFSG par la communauté Debian. La version 2.0 date de 2003, et la dernière version – la troisième – de 2005.

Droits et obligations
Droits: 

Cette licence permet expressément les sous-licenciements, mais ceux-ci doivent impérativement se faire sous la même licence.

La licence est gratuite (mais la communication peut être payante), non exclusive et perpétuelle et porte sur les droits d'auteur comme sur ceux des brevets contenus dans le code soumis à la licence (la licence cherche à créer ici un pot commun de brevets, équivalent à celui issu de l'usage des licences copyleft). Le code source tel que définit par l'AFL incluse la « documentation décrivant comment modifier l'œuvre originale ».

Obligations: 

Quiconque poursuit l'auteur original ou ses utilisateurs pour violation de brevet contenu dans le logiciel soumis à cette licence voit toutes les licences qui lui étaient accordées se terminer immédiatement.

Enfin, la licence incorpore une limitation – et non pas une exclusion – de garantie (de la provenance des sources) et de responsabilité à l'égard du concédant, solution bien plus pragmatique puisqu'il s'agit de ce qui est, dans les faits, le minimum légal.
Toutes actions ou poursuite doivent se faire devant un tribunal de la juridiction du lieu où le concédant exerce son activité principale. Par ailleurs, tous les frais d'avocats seront à la charge de la partie qui poursuit.

Compatibilité
Mécanisme de compatibilité: 

En raison de ses spécificités en matière de brevet, la licence AFL fut initialement considérée comme incompatible avec la GNU GPL. Elle est néanmoins parfaitement compatible avec l'OSL, et peut-être même avec la version de 3 de la GNU GPL.

Plus loin
Aller plus loin: 

Enfin, la licence elle-même est « copyrightée » et ne peut donc servir de base à une nouvelle licence (évitant ainsi leur prolifération) :
This license is Copyright (©) 2003 Lawrence E. Rosen. All rights reserved. Permission is hereby granted to copy and distribute this license without modification. This license may not be modified without the express written permission of its copyright owner.

Public Documentation License 1.0

LicenceText: 

PUBLIC DOCUMENTATION LICENSE
Version 1.0

1.0 DEFINITIONS.

1.1. "Commercial Use" means distribution or otherwise making the Documentation available to a third party.

1.2. "Contributor" means a person or entity who creates or contributes to the creation of Modifications.

1.3. "Documentation" means the Original Documentation or Modifications or the combination of the Original Documentation and Modifications, in each case including portions thereof.

1.4. "Electronic Distribution Mechanism" means a mechanism generally accepted for the electronic transfer of data.

1.5. "Initial Writer" means the individual or entity identified as the Initial Writer in the notice required by the Appendix.

1.6. "Larger Work" means a work which combines Documentation or portions thereof with documentation or other writings not governed by the terms of this License.

1.7. "License" means this document.

1.8. "Modifications" means any addition to or deletion from the substance or structure of either the Original Documentation or any previous Modifications, such as a translation, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which the Original Documentation or previous Modifications may be recast, transformed or adapted. A work consisting of editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, and other modifications which, as a whole represent an original work of authorship, is a Modification. For example, when Documentation is released as a series of documents, a Modification is:

A. Any addition to or deletion from the contents of the Original Documentation or previous Modifications.

B. Any new documentation that contains any part of the Original Documentation or previous Modifications.

1.9. "Original Documentation" means documentation described as Original Documentation in the notice required by the Appendix, and which, at the time of its release under this License is not already Documentation governed by this License.

1.10. "Editable Form" means the preferred form of the Documentation for making Modifications to it. The Documentation can be in an electronic, compressed or archival form, provided the appropriate decompression or de-archiving software is widely available for no charge.

1.11. "You" (or "Your") means an individual or a legal entity exercising rights under, and complying with all of the terms of this License or a future version of this License issued under Section 5.0 ("Versions of the License"). For legal entities, "You" includes any entity which controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with You. For purposes of this definition, "control" means (a) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (b) ownership of more than fifty percent (50%) of the outstanding shares or beneficial ownership of such entity.

2.0 LICENSE GRANTS.

2.1 Initial Writer Grant.

The Initial Writer hereby grants You a world-wide, royalty-free, non-exclusive license to use, reproduce, prepare Modifications of, compile, publicly perform, publicly display, demonstrate, market, disclose and distribute the Documentation in any form, on any media or via any Electronic Distribution Mechanism or other method now known or later discovered, and to sublicense the foregoing rights to third parties through multiple tiers of sublicensees in accordance with the terms of this License.

The license rights granted in this Section 2.1 ("Initial Writer Grant") are effective on the date Initial Writer first distributes Original Documentation under the terms of this License.

2.2. Contributor Grant.

Each Contributor hereby grants You a world-wide, royalty-free, non-exclusive license to use, reproduce, prepare Modifications of, compile, publicly perform, publicly display, demonstrate, market, disclose and distribute the Documentation in any form, on any media or via any Electronic Distribution Mechanism or other method now known or later discovered, and to sublicense the foregoing rights to third parties through multiple tiers of sublicensees in accordance with the terms of this License.

The license rights granted in this Section 2.2 ("Contributor Grant") are effective on the date Contributor first makes Commercial Use of the Documentation.

3.0 DISTRIBUTION OBLIGATIONS

3.1. Application of License

The Modifications which You create or to which You contribute are governed by the terms of this License, including without limitation Section 2.2 ("Contributor Grant"). The Documentation may be distributed only under the terms of this License or a future version of this License released in accordance with Section 5.0 ("Versions of the License"), and You must include a copy of this License with every copy of the Documentation You distribute. You may not offer or impose any terms that alter or restrict the applicable version of this License or the recipients' rights hereunder. However, You may include an additional document offering the additional rights described in Section 3.5 ("Required Notices").

3.2. Availability of Documentation.

Any Modification which You create or to which You contribute must be made available publicly in Editable Form under the terms of this License via a fixed medium or an accepted Electronic Distribution Mechanism.

3.3. Description of Modifications.

All Documentation to which You contribute must identify the changes You made to create that Documentation and the date of any change. You must include a prominent statement that the Modification is derived, directly or indirectly, from Original Documentation provided by the Initial Writer and include the name of the Initial Writer in the Documentation or via an electronic link that describes the origin or ownership of the Documentation. The foregoing change documentation may be created by using an electronic program that automatically tracks changes to the Documentation, and such changes must be available publicly for at least five years following release of the changed Documentation.

3.4. Intellectual Property Matters.

Contributor represents that Contributor believes that Contributor's Modifications are Contributor's original creation(s) and/or Contributor has sufficient rights to grant the rights conveyed by this License.

3.5. Required Notices.

You must duplicate the notice in the Appendix in each file of the Documentation. If it is not possible to put such notice in a particular Documentation file due to its structure, then You must include such notice in a location (such as a relevant directory) where a reader would be likely to look for such a notice, for example, via a hyperlink in each file of the Documentation that takes the reader to a page that describes the origin and ownership of the Documentation. If You created one or more Modification(s) You may add your name as a Contributor to the notice described in the Appendix.

You must also duplicate this License in any Documentation file (or with a hyperlink in each file of the Documentation) where You describe recipients' rights or ownership rights.

You may choose to offer, and to charge a fee for, warranty, support, indemnity or liability obligations to one or more recipients of Documentation. However, You may do so only on Your own behalf, and not on behalf of the Initial Writer or any Contributor. You must make it absolutely clear than any such warranty, support, indemnity or liability obligation is offered by You alone, and You hereby agree to indemnify the Initial Writer and every Contributor for any liability incurred by the Initial Writer or such Contributor as a result of warranty, support, indemnity or liability terms You offer.

3.6. Larger Works.

You may create a Larger Work by combining Documentation with other documents not governed by the terms of this License and distribute the Larger Work as a single product. In such a case, You must make sure the requirements of this License are fulfilled for the Documentation.

4.0 APPLICATION OF THIS LICENSE.

This License applies to Documentation to which the Initial Writer has attached this License and the notice in the Appendix.

5.0 VERSIONS OF THE LICENSE.

5.1. New Versions.

Initial Writer may publish revised and/or new versions of the License from time to time. Each version will be given a distinguishing version number.

5.2. Effect of New Versions.

Once Documentation has been published under a particular version of the License, You may always continue to use it under the terms of that version. You may also choose to use such Documentation under the terms of any subsequent version of the License published by __________________[Insert name of the foundation, company, Initial Writer, or whoever may modify this License]. No one other than _________________ [Insert name of the foundation, company, Initial Writer, or whoever may modify this License] has the right to modify the terms of this License. Filling in the name of the Initial Writer, Original Documentation or Contributor in the notice described in the Appendix shall not be deemed to be Modifications of this License.

6.0 DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY.

DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED UNDER THIS LICENSE ON AN "AS IS'' BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES THAT THE DOCUMENTATION IS FREE OF DEFECTS, MERCHANTABLE, FIT FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGING. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY, ACCURACY, AND PERFORMANCE OF THE DOCUMENTATION IS WITH YOU. SHOULD ANY DOCUMENTATION PROVE DEFECTIVE IN ANY RESPECT, YOU (NOT THE INITIAL WRITER OR ANY OTHER CONTRIBUTOR) ASSUME THE COST OF ANY NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION. THIS DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY CONSTITUTES AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THIS LICENSE. NO USE OF ANY DOCUMENTATION IS AUTHORIZED HEREUNDER EXCEPT UNDER THIS DISCLAIMER.

7.0 TERMINATION.

This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically if You fail to comply with terms herein and fail to cure such breach within 30 days of becoming aware of the breach. All sublicenses to the Documentation which are properly granted shall survive any termination of this License. Provisions which, by their nature, must remain in effect beyond the termination of this License shall survive.

8.0 LIMITATION OF LIABILITY.

UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES AND UNDER NO LEGAL THEORY, WHETHER IN TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), CONTRACT, OR OTHERWISE, SHALL THE INITIAL WRITER, ANY OTHER CONTRIBUTOR, OR ANY DISTRIBUTOR OF DOCUMENTATION, OR ANY SUPPLIER OF ANY OF SUCH PARTIES, BE LIABLE TO ANY PERSON FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY CHARACTER INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF GOODWILL, WORK STOPPAGE, COMPUTER FAILURE OR MALFUNCTION, OR ANY AND ALL OTHER DAMAGES OR LOSSES ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THE USE OF THE DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF SUCH PARTY SHALL HAVE BEEN INFORMED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

9.0 U.S. GOVERNMENT END USERS.

If Documentation is being acquired by or on behalf of the U.S. Government or by a U.S. Government prime contractor or subcontractor (at any tier), then the Government's rights in Documentation will be only as set forth in this Agreement; this is in accordance with 48 CFR 227.7201 through 227.7202-4 (for Department of Defense (DOD) acquisitions) and with 48 CFR 2.101 and 12.212 (for non-DOD acquisitions).

10.0 MISCELLANEOUS.

This License represents the complete agreement concerning the subject matter hereof. If any provision of this License is held to be unenforceable, such provision shall be reformed only to the extent necessary to make it enforceable. This License shall be governed by California law, excluding its conflict-of-law provisions. With respect to disputes or any litigation relating to this License, the losing party is responsible for costs, including without limitation, court costs and reasonable attorneys' fees and expenses. The application of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods is expressly excluded. Any law or regulation which provides that the language of a contract shall be construed against the drafter shall not apply to this License.

Appendix

Public Documentation License Notice

The contents of this Documentation are subject to the Public Documentation License Version 1.0 (the "License"); you may only use this Documentation if you comply with the terms of this License. A copy of the License is available at __________________[Insert hyperlink].

The Original Documentation is _________________. The Initial Writer of the Original Documentation is ___________ Copyright (C)_________[Insert year(s)]. All Rights Reserved. (Initial Writer contact(s):________________[Insert hyperlink/alias]).

Contributor(s): ______________________________________.

Portions created by ______ are Copyright (C)_________[Insert year(s)]. All Rights Reserved. (Contributor contact(s):________________[Insert hyperlink/alias]).

NOTE: The text of this Appendix may differ slightly from the text of the notices in the files of the Original Documentation. You should use the text of this Appendix rather than the text found in the Original Documentation for Your Modifications.

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